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Creates a tmap-element that draws a raster. For coloring, there are three options: 1) a fixed color is used, 2) a color palette is mapped to a data variable, 3) RGB values are used. The function tm_raster is designed for options 1 and 2, while tm_rgb is used for option 3.


  col = NA,
  alpha = NA,
  palette = NULL,
  n = 5,
  style = ifelse(is.null(breaks), "pretty", "fixed"),
  style.args = list(),
  as.count = NA,
  breaks = NULL,
  interval.closure = "left",
  labels = NULL,
  drop.levels = FALSE,
  midpoint = NULL,
  stretch.palette = TRUE,
  contrast = NA,
  saturation = 1,
  interpolate = NA,
  colorNA = NULL,
  textNA = "Missing",
  showNA = NA,
  colorNULL = NULL,
  title = NA, = TRUE,
  legend.format = list(), = TRUE,
  legend.reverse = FALSE,
  legend.hist = FALSE,
  legend.hist.title = NA,
  legend.z = NA,
  legend.hist.z = NA,
  zindex = NA,
  group = NA,
  auto.palette.mapping = NULL,
  max.categories = NULL,
  max.value = 255

  r = 1,
  g = 2,
  b = 3,
  alpha = NA,
  saturation = 1,
  interpolate = TRUE,
  max.value = 255,

  r = 1,
  g = 2,
  b = 3,
  a = 4,
  alpha = NA,
  saturation = 1,
  interpolate = TRUE,
  max.value = 255,



three options: the name of a data variable that is contained in shp, the name of a variable in shp that contain color values, a single color value. In the first case the values (numeric or categorical) that will be depicted by a color palette (see palette. If multiple values are specified, small multiples are drawn (see details). By default, it is a vector of the names of all data variables unless the by argument of tm_facets is defined (in that case, the default color of dots is taken from the tmap option aes.color). If the shape (stars object) contains a third dimension, small multiples are created per 3rd dimension value). Note that the number of small multiples is limited by tmap_options("limits")).


transparency number between 0 (totally transparent) and 1 (not transparent). By default, the alpha value of the col is used (normally 1).


a palette name or a vector of colors. See tmaptools::palette_explorer() for the named palettes. Use a "-" as prefix to reverse the palette. The default palette is taken from tm_layout's argument aes.palette, which typically depends on the style. The type of palette from aes.palette is automatically determined, but can be overwritten: use "seq" for sequential, "div" for diverging, and "cat" for categorical.


preferred number of classes (in case col is a numeric variable)


method to process the color scale when col is a numeric variable. Discrete gradient options are "cat", "fixed", "sd", "equal", "pretty", "quantile", "kmeans", "hclust", "bclust", "fisher", "jenks", "dpih", "headtails", and "log10_pretty". A numeric variable is processed as a categorical variable when using "cat", i.e. each unique value will correspond to a distinct category. For the other discrete gradient options (except "log10_pretty"), see the details in classIntervals (extra arguments can be passed on via style.args). Continuous gradient options are "cont", "order", and "log10". The first maps the values of col to a smooth gradient, the second maps the order of values of col to a smooth gradient, and the third uses a logarithmic transformation. The numeric variable can be either regarded as a continuous variable or a count (integer) variable. See as.count.


arguments passed on to classIntervals, the function that determine color classes (see also style).


when col is a numeric variable, should it be processed as a count variable? For instance, if style = "pretty", n = 2, and the value range of the variable is 0 to 10, then the column classes for as.count = TRUE are 0; 1 to 5; 6 to 10 (note that 0 is regarded as an own category) whereas for as.count = FALSE they are 0 to 5; 5 to 10. Only applicable if style is "pretty", "fixed", or "log10_pretty". By default, TRUE if style is one of these, and the variable is an integer.


in case style=="fixed", breaks should be specified. The breaks argument can also be used when style="cont". In that case, the breaks are mapped evenly to the sequential or diverging color palette.


value that determines whether where the intervals are closed: "left" or "right". Only applicable if col is a numeric variable. If as.count = TRUE, inverval.closure is always set to "left".


labels of the classes


should unused classes be omitted? FALSE by default.


The value mapped to the middle color of a diverging palette. By default it is set to 0 if negative and positive values are present. In that case, the two sides of the color palette are assigned to negative respectively positive values. If all values are positive or all values are negative, then the midpoint is set to NA, which means that the value that corresponds to the middle color class (see style) is mapped to the middle color. Only applies when col is a numeric variable. If it is specified for sequential color palettes (e.g. "Blues"), then this color palette will be treated as a diverging color palette.


Logical that determines whether the categorical color palette should be stretched if there are more categories than colors. If TRUE (default), interpolated colors are used (like a rainbow). If FALSE, the palette is repeated.


vector of two numbers that determine the range that is used for sequential and diverging palettes (applicable when auto.palette.mapping=TRUE). Both numbers should be between 0 and 1. The first number determines where the palette begins, and the second number where it ends. For sequential palettes, 0 means the brightest color, and 1 the darkest color. For diverging palettes, 0 means the middle color, and 1 both extremes. If only one number is provided, this number is interpreted as the endpoint (with 0 taken as the start).


Number that determines how much saturation (also known as chroma) is used: saturation=0 is greyscale and saturation=1 is normal. This saturation value is multiplied by the overall saturation of the map (see tm_layout).


Should the raster image be interpolated? By default FALSE for tm_raster and TRUE for tm_rgb.


color used for missing values. Use NULL for transparency.


text used for missing values.


logical that determines whether missing values are named in the legend. By default (NA), this depends on the presence of missing values.


colour for polygons that are shown on the map that are out of scope


title of the legend element

logical that determines whether the legend is shown


list of formatting options for the legend numbers. Only applicable if labels is undefined. Parameters are:


Function to specify the labels. It should take a numeric vector, and should return a character vector of the same size. By default it is not specified. If specified, the list items scientific, format, and digits (see below) are not used.


Should the labels be formatted scientifically? If so, square brackets are used, and the format of the numbers is "g". Otherwise, format="f", and text.separator, text.less.than, and text.or.more are used. Also, the numbers are automatically rounded to millions or billions if applicable.


By default, "f", i.e. the standard notation, is used. If scientific=TRUE then "g", which means that numbers are formatted scientifically, i.e. n.dddE+nn if needed to save space.


Number of digits after the decimal point if format="f", and the number of significant digits otherwise.


Vector that defines whether and which abbrevations are used for large numbers. It is a named numeric vector, where the name indicated the abbreviation, and the number the magnitude (in terms on numbers of zero). Numbers are only abbrevation when they are large enough. Set it to NA to disable abbrevations. The default is c("mln" = 6, "bln" = 9). For layers where style is set to log10 or log10_pretty, the default is NA.


Prefix of each number


Suffix of each number


Character string to use to separate numbers in the legend (default: "to").


Character value(s) to use to translate "Less than". When a character vector of length 2 is specified, one for each word, these words are aligned when = TRUE


Character value(s) to use to translate "or more". When a character vector of length 2 is specified, one for each word, these words are aligned when = TRUE


Value that determines how the numbers are aligned, "left", "center" or "right". By default "left" for legends in portrait format ( = TRUE), and "center" otherwise.

Logical that determines whether the text is aligned to three columns (from, text.separator, to). By default FALSE.


Logical that determins whther HTML code is escaped in the popups in view mode. By default TRUE. If set to FALSE HTML code can be added, e.g. to added white space via  .


Other arguments passed on to formatC

logical that determines whether the legend is in portrait mode (TRUE) or landscape (FALSE)


logical that determines whether the items of the legend regarding the text sizes are shown in reverse order, i.e. from bottom to top when = TRUE and from right to left when = FALSE


logical that determines whether a histogram is shown


title for the histogram. By default, one title is used for both the histogram and the normal legend.


index value that determines the position of the legend element with respect to other legend elements. The legend elements are stacked according to their z values. The legend element with the lowest z value is placed on top.


index value that determines the position of the histogram legend element


zindex of the pane in view mode. By default, it is set to the layer number plus 400. By default, the tmap layers will therefore be placed in the custom panes "tmap401", "tmap402", etc., except for the base tile layers, which are placed in the standard "tile". This parameter determines both the name of the pane and the z-index, which determines the pane order from bottom to top. For instance, if zindex is set to 500, the pane will be named "tmap500".


name of the group to which this layer belongs in view mode. Each group can be selected or deselected in the layer control item. Set group = NULL to hide the layer in the layer control item. By default, it will be set to the name of the shape (specified in tm_shape).


deprecated. It has been replaced by midpoint for numeric variables and stretch.palette for categorical variables.


deprecated. It has moved to tmap_options.


for tm_rgb, what is the maximum value per layer? By default 255.


raster band for the red channel. It should be an integer between 1 and the number of raster layers.


raster band for the green channel. It should be an integer between 1 and the number of raster layers.


raster band for the blue channel. It should be an integer between 1 and the number of raster layers.


arguments passed on from tm_rgb and tm_rgba to tm_raster.


raster band for the alpha channel. It should be an integer between 1 and the number of raster layers.




Small multiples can be drawn in two ways: either by specifying the by argument in tm_facets, or by defining multiple variables in the aesthetic arguments. The aesthetic argument of tm_raster is col. In the latter case, the arguments, except for the ones starting with legend., can be specified for small multiples as follows. If the argument normally only takes a single value, such as n, then a vector of those values can be specified, one for each small multiple. If the argument normally can take a vector, such as palette, then a list of those vectors (or values) can be specified, one for each small multiple.


Tennekes, M., 2018, tmap: Thematic Maps in R, Journal of Statistical Software, 84(6), 1-39, doi:10.18637/jss.v084.i06


data(World, land, metro)

pal8 <- c("#33A02C", "#B2DF8A", "#FDBF6F", "#1F78B4", "#999999", "#E31A1C", "#E6E6E6", "#A6CEE3")
tm_shape(land, ylim = c(-88,88)) +
    tm_raster("cover_cls", palette = pal8, title = "Global Land Cover") +
tm_shape(metro) + tm_dots(col = "#E31A1C") +
tm_shape(World) +
    tm_borders(col = "black") +
tm_layout(scale = .8, 
  legend.position = c("left","bottom"), = "white", = .2, 
    legend.frame = "gray50")
#> old-style crs object detected; please recreate object with a recent sf::st_crs()
#> old-style crs object detected; please recreate object with a recent sf::st_crs()
#> old-style crs object detected; please recreate object with a recent sf::st_crs()

if (FALSE) { # \dontrun{
pal20 <- c("#003200", "#3C9600", "#006E00", "#556E19", "#00C800", "#8CBE8C",
       "#467864", "#B4E664", "#9BC832", "#EBFF64", "#F06432", "#9132E6",
       "#E664E6", "#9B82E6", "#B4FEF0", "#646464", "#C8C8C8", "#FF0000",
       "#FFFFFF", "#5ADCDC")
tm_shape(land) +
  tm_raster("cover", palette = pal20, title = "Global Land Cover") + 
  tm_layout(scale=.8, legend.position = c("left","bottom"))
} # }

tm_shape(land, ylim = c(-88,88)) +
    tm_raster("trees", palette = "Greens", title = "Percent Tree Cover") +
tm_shape(World) +
    tm_borders() +
tm_layout(legend.position = c("left", "bottom"), bg.color = "lightblue")

if (FALSE) { # \dontrun{
tm_shape(land) +
  tm_raster("black") +
} # }

# TIP: check out these examples in view mode, enabled with tmap_mode("view")